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Poverty And Unemployment In India 2024

  • Poverty : Defined as lack of basic necessities for minimum standard of living such as Food, shelter clothes. Acc to UN Human rights Council , Poverty Means deprivation of resources , Choices, security , power that are Necessary for standard of living.
  • Poors are deprived of Quality education, are unable acquire skills , not access to affordable healthcare.


  • Types of Poverty: absolute poverty and relative poverty
  • Absolute poverty; Means A Condition where household income is below a necessary level to maintain basic living standard ( food, shelter , cloth ( 1990 Introduced “ the dollar a day” poverty line measured in 2015 the world Bank reset it $ 1.90 a day
  • Relative Poverty Means Not having enough money to live comfortably as compared to others or when household Receive 50% less than average household income or not afford anything above basics.
  • Causes of Poverty In India The Major causes are
  • Social exclusion , indebtedness, social, and political inequality ,Unemployment, Unequal distribution of wealth
  • Poverty rate in India as per NITI Aayog report 2023 Reduction of poverty in India declining from 24% to 14.9% from 2011-2021
  • Other Causes
  • British Economic Policies , Economic Exploitation , Taxation , They destroyed local industries , After independence , In India Unequal distribution of resources contribute poverty in India , social inequalities such as caste system , Besides rapid population growth became some cause led to poverty in India
  • Poverty Estimation Committees

Alagh Committee 1979 determined poverty line based on minimum daily requirement Calories 2400 and 2100 for adult in rural and urban areas.Lakdawla Committee 1993 Tendulkar Committee 2009 subsequently Rangarajan Committee to review Tendulkar Committee methodology for estimating poverty

  • IRDP Integrated Rural development Programme 1978 -1979 Implemented in 1980 aim is to provide assistance to poor people in rural areas in terms of subsidy and Bank credit for employment .
  • Indra awas Yojna; Aim at to provide free housing to BPL people
  • National old age Pension schemes launched by the government to assist Poor people
  • ( JRY) jawahar Rozgar Yojna : aim was generate employment for unemployed
  • Annapurna Scheme : 10 Kg ration to senior citizens
  • The others schemes are MGNREGA 2005 , National rural livilihood Mission , Pradhan Mantri kaushal vikas Yojna , Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna ( subsidy or pension ) direct transfer.
  • World bank Defines by Using international poverty line ( extreme poverty $2.15 Per person a day ( $3.65 falls under the lower middle income category $6.8 classified as Upper middle income
  • In India the poverty line lies 1286 RS per month for urban areas and 1059.42 rupees per month for rural areas
  • Unemployment : Means when a person actively searching for employment but he is unable to find work . Or seeking available work .
  • Types of Unemployment :

Structural Unemployment:  Means mismatch between the job available and skills in workers available. Many people in India not getting job because of lack of skills.

  • Seasonal Unemployment: Unemployment related to seasonal fluctuations. E.g people working in Agriculture fields getting unemployed during off season.
  • Disguised Unemployment: More People are employed any sector but their contribution out put is low.
  • Cyclical Unemployment : Unemployment rises during recession and decline with economic growth .
  • Technological Unemployment: People loss jobs due to changes in technology.

Educational Unemployment: Occurs when persons are unemployed due to educational Qualifications. Some people not find job that match their qualification

  • Vulnerable Unemployment : People working informally any sector on contract their records are not be maintained after contract they become unemployed.

Causes of Unemployment Rapid growth of population, Agriculture cause in India agriculture is underdeveloped. Fall of cottage and small industries due to modern technology , lacks of skills in people .

Government  Initiatives To Curb Unemployment

  • Mathma Ghandi National rural employment Gurantee act 2005.
  • National career service scheme
  • Pradhan Mantri khushal vikas Yojna ( skill development Programme ) 2015
  • Start up India scheme 2015 for creating jobs in India
  • Rozgar Mela
  • Unemployment rate India As per NSSO  from March 2023 Unemployment rate was 8.2 %  and decreases to 6.8 in urban areas

As per the centre for monitoring Indian economy (CMIE) Unemployment rate in India stood at 6.8 percent January  as was 8.7 December in last year.

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